Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Case Report

Cardiovascular Risk Factors

Hawraa Tofaili 2, 5 Safaa Joumaa2,3 Rawan Tabaja 2,5 Nada Mchawrab 1,5
1Lebanese University, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Beirut, Lebanon.
2Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, Faculty of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Lebanon.
3Lebanese University, Faculty of Sciences, Beirut, Lebanon.
4Gilbert and Rose-Marie Chagoury School of Medicine, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon.
5Medical Learning Skills Academy, Beirut, Lebanon.
6Medical Learning Skills Academy, Beirut, Lebanon.
7Medical Learning Skills Academy, Beirut, Lebanon.

*Corresponding Author: Sukru Kalayci,Department of Chemical Technology, Technical sciences vocational school, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Citation: Sukru Kalayci,Department of Chemical Technology.

Copyright: © 2024  Sukru this is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Received: December 06, 2023 | Accepted: January 27, 2024 | Published: January 08, 2024

Abstract

We are reporting a case of 39 year old lady who presented with large lump in the breast mimicking as breast carcinoma and after surgical excision diagnosed as breast aspergilloma. Aspergillus fungal infection of the breast is a very rarely encountered phenomenon.  In the literature, only countable cases has been reported which were also encountered in immunosuppressed host.  Breast aspergilloma in an immunocompetent patient is an extremely rare situation. The source of breast fungal infections are considered via contamination of implants during manufacture, airborne dissemination, hematogenous dissemination or nosocomial spread from the operating room environment. The most common presumed source in most of the patients is considered as airborne infection during a surgical procedure. A team of surgeon, pathologist and microbiologist are necessary for the diagnosis and management of patients with aspegillus infection of the breast. Breast aspergilloma patients should be addressed with early and aggressive surgical and medical treatment.

Keywords: teeth; fluoride; selective electrode; potentiometry

Introduction

Fluoride is an important element in maintaining dental health. Dental health deteriorates in lack or excess of fluoride. The change in the amount of fluoride is mostly due to the water and food consumed. It has been determined that the amount of fluoride changes as a result of environmental pollution of water and chemicals used in food production, and therefore dental health deteriorates [1-5]. Determining the amount of fluoride also becomes extremely important. Fluoride determination was made by many methods. These methods include FT-IR spectroscopy [6], Raman spectroscopy [7], ion chromatography [8] and ICP-OES methods [9]. Analyzes performed with these methods are expensive and have many interference effects. In this study, analysis of the amount of fluoride was performed using a fluoride selective electrode. Analytical performance values of the electrode were measured and its sensitivity was determined to be high. The amounts of fluoride in 4 different tooth samples were determined with a fluoride selective electrode.

Results

Materials and Reagents

Calcium fluoride (Sigma), used as an ionophore, Ag(I)S and CuS were commercially obtained. Anion and cation solutions (Merck) were obtained from solid salts. All solutions were prepared using twice purified water.

Instruments

An external Ag/AgCl reference electrode with a Jenway 3040 pH/ion meter was used for potential measurement. Potential values were measured at room temperature.

Preparation of fluoride selective electrode

A certain amount of the salt or salt mixture of Ag(I)S, CuS and CaF2 (10–15 mg) was taken and pellets were made by holding first under a pressure of 1940 atm for 1min, then pressure was increased to 7760 atm by adding each time 1940 atm for 1min. The pellets of 7mmdiameter were sealed with epoxy resin (0.7 g epoxy and 0.9 ghardener). To obtain a good sealing the epoxy resin on the edge of the tubing had to wait for about 10 min and then the pellet was sealed. One day after the pellet was sealed a silver wire is connected. For this purpose, the inside of the glass tube was filled to about 1 cm with a mixture of 0.5 g graphite powder and epoxy resin. The electrode prepared had to wait for about 2 days so that the resin can get dry. The surface of the electrode is washed and then polished with a soft paper [10]. 

Preparation of teeth samples

Four dental samples were taken from the faculty of dentistry. Tooth samples were kept in 5ml TISAB II (Total Ionic Strength Adjustments Buffer) for 24 hours. The amount of fluoride passing into the solution was measured using an electrode.

Discussion

It was measured that the fluoride selective electrode, using calcium fluoride as the ionophore and prepared from slightly soluble sulfur salts, was sensitive to fluoride concentration with a slope of approximately 30 mV. It was determined that the analytical performance of the electrode was high against synthetically added fluoride concentrations. Especially the % recovery rates of 97-99% confirm this. Then, 4 different tooth samples were kept in TISAB II solution for 24 hours and fluoride analyzes were measured both by electrode and ion chromatography. It was determined that the results were compatible with each other. Using fluoride electrodes in dental samples was found to be extremely practical and easy to analyze.

Conclusion

It was measured that the fluoride selective electrode, using calcium fluoride as the ionophore and prepared from slightly soluble sulfur salts, was sensitive to fluoride concentration with a slope of approximately 30 mV. It was determined that the analytical performance of the electrode was high against synthetically added fluoride concentrations. Especially the % recovery rates of 97-99% confirm this. Then, 4 different tooth samples were kept in TISAB II solution for 24 hours and fluoride analyzes were measured both by electrode and ion chromatography. It was determined that the results were compatible with each other. Using fluoride electrodes in dental samples was found to be extremely practical and easy to analyze.

Declaration

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Gazi University, Department of Chemical Technology.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. Paul T.C. Harrison. (2005). “Fluoride in water: A UK perspective”. Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, 126(11-12):1448-1456.
    Publisher | Google Scholor
  2. Z. Mandinic, M. Curcic, B. Antonijevic, M. Carevic, J. Mandic, D. Djukic-Cosic, C.P. Lekic. (2010). “Fluoride in drinking water and dental fluorosis”. Science of The Total Environment, 408(17):3507-3512.
    Publisher | Google Scholor